Skip to main content

Proof Theory

Thanks to my brother I got a really cool book on proof theory called "Basic Proof Theory". It has a bunch of nice features including a from the ground up presentation of proof theory that should be relatively accesible to anyone with a background in mathematics. It demonstrates some of the connections provided by the Curry-Howard correspondance (which is my favourite part of the book) . It also describe Second order logic, which is great because I've had very little formal exposure to this. Second order logic is really beautiful since you can define all the connectives in terms of ∀, ∀2 and →. If you pun ∀ and ∀2 you have a really compact notation.

The book also forced me to learn some things I hadn't wrapped my head around. One of those was Gentzen style sequent calculus. This really turns out to be pretty easy when you have a good book describing it. I've even wrote a little sequent solver (in lisp) since I found the proofs so much fun. The first order intuisionistic sequent solver is really not terribly difficult to write. Basically I treat the proofs as goal directed starting with a sequent of the form:

⇒ F

And try to arive at leaves of the tree that all have the form:

A ⇒ A

I have already proven that 'F ⇒ F' for compound formulas F from 'A ⇒ A' so I didn't figure it was neccessary to make the solver do it. The solver currently only works with propositional formula (it solves a type theory where types are not parameteric.) but I'm interested in limited extensions though I haven't thought much about that. I imagine I quickly get something undecidable if I'm not careful.

Anyhow working with the sequent calculus got me thinking about → In the book they present the rule for R→ as such


Γ,A ⇒ Δ,B
Γ ⇒ A→B,Δ



This is a bit weird since there is nothing that goes the other direction. ie. for non of: Minimal, Intuisionistic or Classical logic do you find a rule in which you introduce a connective in the left from formulas in the right. I started looking around for something that does this and I ran into Basic Logic. I haven't read the paper yet so I can't really comment on it. I'll let you know after I'm done with it.

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

Managing state in Prolog monadically, using DCGs.

Prolog is a beautiful language which makes a lot of irritating rudimentary rule application and search easy. I have found it is particularly nice when trying to deal with compilers which involve rule based transformation from a source language L to a target language L'.

However, the management of these rules generally requires keeping track of a context, and this context has to be explicitly threaded through the entire application, which involves a lot of irritating and error prone sequence variables. This often leads to your code looking something a bit like this:

compile(seq(a,b),(ResultA,ResultB),S0,S2) :- compile(a,ResultA,S0,S1), compile(b,ResultB,S1,S2).
While not the worst thing, I've found it irritating and ugly, and I've made a lot of mistakes with incorrectly sequenced variables. It's much easier to see sequence made explicitly textually in the code.

While they were not designed for this task, but rather for parsing, DCGs turn out to be a convenient …

Generating etags automatically when needed

Have you ever wanted M-. (the emacs command which finds the definition of the term under the cursor) to just "do the right thing" and go to the most current definition site, but were in a language that didn't have an inferior process set-up to query about source locations correctly (as is done in lisp, ocaml and some other languages with sophisticated emacs interfaces)?

Well, fret no more. Here is an approach that will let you save the appropriate files and regenerate your TAGS file automatically when things change assuring that M-. takes you to the appropriate place.

You will have to reset the tags-table-list or set it when you first use M-. and you'll want to change the language given to find and etags in the 'create-prolog-tags function (as you're probably not using prolog), but otherwise it shouldn't require much customisation.

And finally, you will need to run etags once manually, or run 'M-x create-prolog-tags' in order to get the initia…

Formalisation of Tables in a Dependent Language

I've had an idea kicking about in my head for a while of making query plans explicit in SQL in such a way that one can be assured that the query plan corresponds to the SQL statement desired. The idea is something like a Curry-Howard in a relational setting. One could infer the plan from the SQL, the SQL from the plan, or do a sort of "type-checking" to make sure that the plan corresponds to the SQL.

The devil is always in the details however. When I started looking at the primitives that I would need, it turns out that the low level table joining operations are actually not that far from primitive SQL statement themselves. I decided to go ahead and formalise some of what would be necessary in Agda in order get a better feel for the types of objects I would need and the laws which would be required to demonstrate that a plan corresponded with a statement.

Dependent types are very powerful and give you plenty of rope to hang yourself. It's always something of…